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Saturday, August 26, 2017

Malaria

Malaria

Life cycle of Malaria



Definition

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Malaria produces recurrent attacks of chills and fever. Malaria kills an estimated 1 million people each year worldwide.


If you're traveling to locations where malaria is common, take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now immune to the most common drugs used to treat the disease.

Malaria around the World




Symptoms

Moderate to severe shaking chills
High fever
Profuse sweating as body temperature falls
Headache
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for months, or even years.

Causes

Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites.
Other transmission:
From mother to unborn child
Through blood transfusions
By sharing needles used to inject drugs


Risk Factors

The biggest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit tropical areas where the disease is common. Many different subtypes of malaria parasites exist. The variety that causes the most lethal complications is most commonly found in:
African countries south of the Sahara desert
The Indian subcontinent
Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Haiti
Risks of more severe disease 
People at increased risk of serious disease include:
Young children and infants
Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
Pregnant women and their unborn children
Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no access to health care also contribute to malaria deaths worldwide.

Complication – full life cycle of malaria



Complication

Malaria can be fatal, particularly the variety that's common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 90 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.

Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. Cerebral malaria may cause coma.

Breathing problems. Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe.

Organ failure. Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening.

Severe anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in severe anemia.

Low blood sugar. Severe forms of malaria itself can cause low blood sugar, as can quinine — one of the most common medications used to combat malaria. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or death.


Test and Diagnosis

Blood Test – Smear for MP / Parasite V and F


Treatment and Drugs

The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:
 Which type of malaria parasite you have
 The severity of your symptoms
 Your age
  Whether you're pregnant

Anti malarial Drugs:-

 Chloroquine (Aralen)
Quinine sulfate (Qualaquin)
Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
Mefloquine
Combination of atovaquone and proguanil (Malarone)

Prevention

No vaccine yet 

Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.

Reducing exposure to mosquitoes 

In countries where malaria is common, prevention also involves keeping mosquitoes away from humans. Strategies include:

Spraying your home. Treating your home's walls with insecticide can help kill adult mosquitoes that come inside.

Sleeping under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, are especially recommended for pregnant women and young children.

Covering your skin. During active mosquito times, usually from dusk to dawn, wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.

Spraying clothing and skin. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to use on clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin.


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