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Sunday, August 6, 2017

HIV / AIDS

 HIV / AIDS

Definition
· AIDS / HIV is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease.

· HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. It can take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point that you have AIDS.

· There's no cure for HIV/AIDS, but there are medications that can dramatically slow the progression of the disease. It mostly seen in Africa and part of Asia.

· The first cases of HIV were diagnosed among sex workers in Chennai in 1986. Since then, the country has evolved from “low” to “concentrated” epidemic. In 2009, an estimated 2.4 million people (aged 15-49) were living with HIV, slightly lower than the 2.5 million reported in 2001. However, India remains just behind South Africa and Nigeria in numbers of persons living with HIV

Symptoms

· Primary infection – Fever, Muscle soreness,Rash,Headache,Sore throat, Mouth or genital ulcers, Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck, Joint pain, Night sweats, Diarrhea.


· Progressive to AIDS :
· Soaking night sweats
· Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks
· Cough and shortness of breath
· Chronic diarrhea
· Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth
· Headaches
· Persistent, unexplained fatigue
· Blurred and distorted vision
· Weight loss
· Skin rashes or bumps

Causes

· Scientists believe a virus similar to HIV first occurred in some populations of chimps and monkeys in Africa, where they're hunted for food. Contact with an infected monkey's blood during butchering or cooking may have allowed the virus to cross into humans and become HIV.

· How does HIV become AIDS?
HIV destroys CD4 cells — a specific type of white blood cell that plays a large role in helping your body fight disease. Your immune system weakens as more CD4 cells are killed. You can have an HIV infection for years before it progresses to AIDS.

· How HIV is transmitted
To become infected with HIV, infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions must enter your body. You can't become infected through ordinary contact — hugging, kissing, dancing or shaking hands — with someone who has HIV or AIDS. HIV can't be transmitted through the air, water or via insect bites.

· During sex
· Blood transfusion
· Sharing needles
· From mother to child

Risk Factors

· Have unprotected sex. .
· Have another STI. Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) produce open sores on your genitals. These sores act as doorways for HIV to enter your body.
· Use intravenous drugs. People who use intravenous drugs often share needles and syringes. This exposes them to droplets of other people's blood.

Complication

· HIV infection weakens your immune system, making you highly susceptible to all sorts of infections and certain types of cancers.

· Infections common to HIV/AIDS
· Tuberculosis (TB).
· Salmonellosis.
· Cytomegalovirus (CMV). This common herpes virus is transmitted in body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen and breast milk. A healthy immune system inactivates the virus, and it remains dormant in your body. If your immune system weakens, the virus resurfaces — causing damage to your eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs.

· Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a common HIV-related infection. It causes inflammation and a thick white coating on the mucous membranes of your mouth, tongue, esophagus or vagina. Children may have especially severe symptoms in the mouth or esophagus, which can make eating painful and difficult.

· Cryptococcal meningitis.
· Toxoplasmosis. This potentially deadly infection is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite spread primarily by cats. Infected cats pass the parasites in their stools, and the parasites may then spread to other animals.

· Wasting syndrome.
· Neurological complications. Confusion, forgotlessness, depression, altered behavior .

· Kidney disease. .

Test and Diagnosis

· Viral Screening – HIV, HbsAg, HCV
· CD4 count.
· Normal value is 500 to 1500
· if a person is infected its less the 500 or 200
· Viral load.
· Drug resistance.

Treatment and Drugs

· Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).NNRTIs disable a protein needed by HIV to make copies of itself. Examples include efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelence) and nevirapine (Viramune).

· Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make copies of itself. Examples include Abacavir (Ziagen), and the combination drugs emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir).

· Protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs disable protease, another protein that HIV needs to make copies of itself. Examples include atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva) and ritonavir (Norvir).

· Entry or fusion inhibitors. These drugs block HIV's entry into CD4 cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry).

· Integrase inhibitors. Raltegravir (Isentress) works by disabling integrase, a protein that HIV uses to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

· Although it's important to receive medical treatment for HIV/AIDS, it's also essential to take an active role in your own care. The following suggestions may help you stay healthy longer:

· Eat healthy foods. Emphasize fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean protein. Healthy foods help keep you strong, give you more energy and support your immune system.

· Avoid certain foods. Food borne illnesses can be especially severe in people who are infected with HIV. Avoid unpasteurized dairy products, raw eggs and raw seafood such as oysters, sushi or sashimi. Cook meat until it's well-done or until there's no trace of pink color.

· Get immunizations. These may prevent infections such as pneumonia and the flu. Make sure the vaccines don't contain live viruses, which can be dangerous for people with weakened immune systems.

· Take care with companion animals. Some animals may carry parasites that can cause infections in people who are HIV-positive. Cat feces can cause toxoplasmosis, while pet reptiles can carry salmonell


Prevention

· There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. But it's possible to protect yourself and others from infection. That means educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body.

· To help prevent the spread of HIV:
· Use a new condom every time you have sex.
· Tell your sexual partners if you have HIV.
· Use a clean needle.
If you're pregnant, get medical care right away.

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