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Sunday, August 20, 2017

Food Poison


FOOD POISON



Definition

Food poisoning is an acute illness, usually of sudden onset, brought about by eating contaminated or poisonous food. The symptoms normally include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever.

It may be caused by:-
 
  • bacteria or their toxins
  • chemicals including metals
  • plants or fishdViruses
  • Can Result in Long term disease and death
  • Often caused by food that looks, smells and tastes 
Causes
  • Contamination of food can happen at any point during its production: growing, harvesting, processing, storing, shipping or preparing. Cross-contamination — the transfer of harmful organisms from one surface to another — is often the cause. This is especially troublesome for raw, ready-to-eat foods, such as salads or other produce. Because these foods aren't cooked, harmful organisms aren't destroyed before eating and can cause food poisoning. 
  • not cooking food thoroughly (especially poultry, pork, burgers, sausages and kebabs) 
  • not storing food that needs to be chilled at below 5°C 
  • someone who is ill or who has unclean hands touching the food 
  • eating the food after it has passed its ‘use by’ date 

People at high risk
Babies
People who have chronic Disease
Elderly People
Pregnant Women


















Signs and Symptoms
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Fever
  • Headache 
  • Fatigue
Treatment
  • The main treatment for food poisoning is putting fluids back in the body (rehydration) through an IV and by drinking. 
  • Do not eat solid food while nauseous or vomiting but drink plenty of fluids. 
  • Anti-vomiting ,diarrhea medications and Anti boitics. 
Types of food contamination

  • Chemicals
  • Natural toxins 
  • Foreign matter:
  • physically injure people
  • introduce harmful bacteria into food.E.g.: dead insects, hair, jewellery, glass, pieces of metal.
Organisms Include:
  • viruses
  • bacteria
  • Parasites
  • Micro-organisms such as viruses and bacteria are the most common causes of food poisoning.
Type of Bacteria :

There are two type of bacteria that cause major problems in the food industry:
  • Spoilage bacteria - responsible for the decomposition of food.
  • Pathogenic bacteria - responsible for causing illness such as dysentery, typhoid and food poisoning. 
The Main Food Poisoning Bacteria



Strategies to prevent food poisoning

Keep hands and nails clean we need to:
  • wash hands and nails thoroughly with warm,
  • Running water and soap
  • dry hands thoroughly
  • cover cuts and infections on hands

Transfer of micro-organisms by hands



Keeping the kitchen clean

When cleaning plates and equipment, we need to:
  • scrape and rinse off surface food
  • wash in clean, soapy water
  • rinse in clean water
  • air dry where possible
  • if drying immediately, use only a clean, dry towel.


Pest control and animals
  • stop pests such as cockroaches and mice coming into the area where food is kept
  • discourage pests by not leaving food or dirty dishes out on the benches
  • keep animals out of the kitchen.




Handling food safely
  • avoid preparing food when sick or feeling unwell
  • keep raw meats, poultry and seafood separated from cooked food and food to be eaten raw
  • protect food in the refrigerator by placing in covered containers or covering with plastic wrap
  • use clean equipment, plates or containers to prevent contamination of cooked food 
  • use clean equipment, rather than hands, to pick up food
  • wear clean clothes or a clean apron
  • wash fruit and vegetables to be eaten raw under running water.


Complication

The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and essential salts and minerals. If you're a healthy adult and drink enough to replace fluids you lose from vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration shouldn't be a problem. But infants, older adults and people with suppressed immune systems or chronic illnesses may become severely dehydrated when they lose more fluids than they can replace. In that case, they may need to be hospitalized and receive intravenous fluids. In extreme cases, dehydration can be fatal.


Summary:
Preventing food poisoning 

need to:
1. keep hands and nails clean
2. keep the kitchen clean
3. handle food safely
4. cook high-risk foods thoroughly
5. keep hot food hot and cold food cold






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