Topics

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Diarrhea



Diarrhea






Definition

Diarrhea, words comes from Greek “Dia – Through and Rheo means, Flow. Its combines “Flowing through”.

According to WHO, definition, diarrhea means, having three or more loose stools or liquid per day or having more stools than is normal for a person.

Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.

It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and over and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5.

Causes

· Viruses. Viruses that can cause diarrhea include Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhea.

· Bacteria and parasites. Contaminated food or water can transmit bacteria and parasites to your body. Common bacterial causes of diarrhea include campylobacter, salmonella, shigella and Escherichia coli.

Medications.

· Lactose intolerance. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Many people have difficulty digesting lactose and experience diarrhea after eating dairy products.

· Fructose. Fructose, a sugar found naturally in fruits and honey and added as a sweetener to some beverages, can cause diarrhea in people who have trouble digesting it.

· Artificial sweeteners. Sorbitol and mannitol, artificial sweeteners found in chewing gum and other sugar-free products, can cause diarrhea in some otherwise healthy people.

 Surgery.

· Other digestive disorders. Chronic diarrhea has a number of other causes, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Signs and Symptoms
· Frequent, loose, watery stools
· Abdominal cramps
· Abdominal pain
· Fever
· Blood in the stool
· Bloating
If diarrhea persist more than 2 days, symptoms of thirst, dry mouth or skin, little urination or no urination. Severe weakness, dizziness and lightheadedness or dark color urine, bloody stool. Rectal pain, temperature more than 102 C.

Test and Diagnosis

· Blood test. A complete blood count test may help determine what's causing your diarrhea.
· Stool test. Your doctor may recommend a stool test to determine whether a bacterium or parasite is causing your diarrhea.
· Urine microscopic test.
Treatment and Drugs

Most cases of diarrhea clear on their own within a couple of days without treatment.
Antibiotics
Antibiotics may help treat diarrhea caused by bacteria or parasites. If a virus is causing your diarrhea, antibiotics won't help.
Treatment to replace fluids.
Treating underlying conditions.
 If your diarrhea is caused by a more serious disease or condition, such as inflammatory bowel disease, your doctor will work to control that condition. You may be referred to a specialist, such as a gastroenterologist, who can help devise a treatment plan for you.

Life style and Home Remedies

Drink plenty of clear liquids, Including water, broths and juices, every day. Avoid caffeine and alcohol.

Add semisolid and low-fiber foods gradually as your bowel movements return to normal. Try soda crackers, toast, eggs, rice or chicken.

Avoid certain foods such as dairy products, fatty foods, high-fiber foods or highly seasoned foods for a few days.

Ask about anti-diarrheal medications. Over-the-counter (OTC) anti-diarrheal medications, such as loperamide (Imodium A-D)

Prevention
Wash frequently. Wash your hands before and after preparing food. In addition, wash your hands after handling uncooked meat, using the toilet, changing diapers, sneezing, coughing and blowing your nose.

Lather with soap for at least 20 seconds. After putting soap on your hands, rub your hands together for at least 20 seconds. This is about as long as it takes to sing "Happy Birthday" twice through.

Use hand sanitizer when washing isn't possible. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer when you can't get to a sink. Apply the hand sanitizer as you would hand lotion, making sure to completely cover the fronts and backs of both hands. Use a product that contains at least 60 percent alcohol.

Preventing diarrhea from contaminated food
To guard against diarrhea caused by contaminated food:

Serve food right away or refrigerate it after it has been cooked or reheated. Leaving food out at room temperature can encourage growth of bacteria.

Wash work surfaces frequently to avoid spreading germs from one food item to another. Wash your hands and your work surfaces several times during food preparation.

Use the refrigerator to thaw frozen items. Or try putting plastic-wrapped frozen items in a bowl of cold water to thaw. Don't leave frozen items on the counter to thaw.

Preventing traveler's diarrhea

 Diarrhea commonly affects people who travel to countries where inadequate sanitation and contaminated food and water are encountered. To reduce your risk:

Watch what you eat. Eat hot, well-cooked foods. Avoid raw fruits and vegetables unless you can peel them yourself. Also avoid raw or undercooked meats and dairy foods.
Watch what you drink. Drink bottled water, soda, beer or wine served in its original container. Avoid tap water and ice cubes. Use bottled water even for brushing your teeth. Keep your mouth closed while you shower. Beverages from boiled water, such as coffee and tea, are probably safe. Remember that alcohol and caffeine can aggravate diarrhea and dehydration.

Check for travel warnings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains a travelers' health website where disease warnings are posted for foreign countries. If you're planning to travel outside of the United States, check there for warnings and tips for reducing your risk.



No comments:

Post a Comment

Popular