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Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Back Pain


BACK PAIN

 

 
Definition
Back pain is a common complaint. Most people  will experience low back pain at least once during their lives.
Usually feels like an ache, tension or stiffness in your back.
The pain can be triggered by bad posture while sitting or standing, bending  awkwardly, or lifting incorrectly.
Causes and Risk Factors
Muscle or ligament strain. Repeated heavy lifting or a sudden awkward movement may strain back muscles and spinal ligaments. 
 

Bulging or ruptured disks. Disks act as cushions between the individual bones (vertebrae) in your spine. Sometimes, the soft material inside a disk may bulge out of place or rupture and press on a nerve. 

Arthritis. Osteoarthritis can affect the lower back. 

Skeletal irregularities. Back pain can occur if your spine curves in an abnormal way. Scoliosis, a condition in which your spine curves to the side, also may lead to back pain, but generally only if the scoliosis is quite severe.
  
Osteoporosis. Compression fractures of your spine's vertebrae can occur if your bones become porous and brittle

  

 

Factors that increase the risk of developing back pain include:

Smoking
Obesity
Older age
Physically or mentally stressful job
Anxiety, Depression
Maintaining slouched posture in chairs
Driving in a hunched position
Standing in an arched manner
Lifting without bending knees
Sleeping on sagging mattress Being unfit Sleeping
prone
Getting out of the bed straight from supine lying position
 
  




 



Sign and symptoms

Muscle ache
Shooting or stabbing pain
Pain that radiates down your leg
Limited flexibility or range of motion of the back
Inability to stand up straight.



Test and Diagnosis

X-ray. These images show the alignment of your bones and whether you have arthritis or broken bones.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) scans. These scans can generate images that may reveal herniated disks or problems with bones, muscles, tissue, tendons, nerves, ligaments and blood vessels.
Bone scan. In rare cases, your doctor may use a bone scan to look for bone tumors or compression fractures caused by osteoporosis.
Nerve studies (electromyography, or EMG). This test measures the electrical impulses produced by the nerves and the responses of your muscles.

 Treatment
Pain Killer
Hot and Cold Treatment
Sleeping position
By changing your sleeping position you can take some of the strain off your back
and ease the pain. If you sleep on your side, draw your legs up slightly towards
your chest and put a pillow between your legs. If you sleep on your back, placing a
pillow under your knees will help maintain the normal curve of your lower back.
Keep moving
Most experts now agree that staying in bed, lying down or being inactive for long
periods is actually bad for your back. People who remain active are likely to
recover more quickly. This may be difficult at first if the pain is severe but try to
move around as soon as you are able and aim to do a little more each day.
Lifestyle
Common causes include being overweight, having poor posture and stress.
Regular exercise and being active on a daily basis will help to keep your back
strong and healthy. Walking, swimming and yoga are popular choices. The
important thing is to choose an enjoyable activity that you can benefit from
without feeling pain. 

 Prevention 
To avoid back pain, you must reduce excess stresses and strains on your back and
ensure that your back is strong and supple.
Lose any excess weight – you can use the body mass index (BMI) healthy weight
calculator to find out whether you are a healthy weight for your height.
Wear flat shoes with cushioned soles, as these can reduce the stress on your back.
Avoid sudden movements or muscle strain.
Try to reduce any stress, anxiety and tension. 

 Illustrating some methods
Standing
Sitting
Driving
Sleeping
Exercise
Lifting and handling
Start in a good position
Keep the load close to your waist
Avoid twisting your back or leaning sideways
Keep your head up
Know your limits.
Push rather than pull
Distribute the weight evenly
 












 

 
 

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