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Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Asthma


ASTHMA



Definition

— Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.

— For some people, asthma is a minor nuisance. For others, it can be a major problem that interferes with daily activities and may lead to a life-threatening asthma attack.

— Asthma can't be cured, but its symptoms can be controlled. Because asthma often changes over time.


Symptoms

· Chest tightness or pain
· Shortness of breath
· Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
· A whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling (wheezing is a common sign of asthma in children)
· Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu
· Exercise-induced asthma, which may be worse when the air is cold and dry
· Occupational asthma, triggered by workplace irritants such as chemical fumes, gases or dust
· Allergy-induced asthma, triggered by particular allergens, such as pet dander, cockroaches or pollen


Causes

— It isn't clear why some people get asthma and others don't, but it's probably due to a combination of environmental and genetic (inherited) factors.

— Airborne allergens
— Allergic reactions to some foods
— Respiratory infections

— exercise-induced asthma
— Cold air
— Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke
— Strong emotions and stress
— preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages
— Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD)
— a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat


Risk Factors

— A number of factors are thought to increase your chances of developing asthma. These include:
— Having a blood relative (such as a parent or sibling) with asthma
— Having another allergic condition, such as atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
— Being overweight
— Being a smoker
— Exposure to secondhand smoke
— Having a mother who smoked while pregnant
— Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution
— Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming, hairdressing and manufacturing
— Low birth weight


Complication

— Symptoms that interfere with sleep, work or recreational activities
— Sick days from work or school during asthma flare-ups
— Permanent narrowing of the bronchial tubes (airway remodeling) that affects how well you can breathe
— Emergency room visits and hospitalizations for severe asthma attacks
— Side effects from long-term use of some medications used to stabilize severe asthma



Test and Diagnosis

· Physical exam
To rule out other possible conditions — such as a respiratory infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
· Spirometry.
· Peak flow.
· X-ray, Imaging (CT or MRI)












Life style and Home remedies

— Use your air conditioner.
— Decontaminate your decor.
— Maintain optimal humidity.
— Prevent mold spores.
— Reduce pet dander.
— Clean regularly.
— Cover your nose and mouth if it's cold out.
Stay Health
— Get regular exercise.
— Maintain a healthy weight.
— Eat fruits and vegetables.
— Control heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Prevention

— Identify and avoid asthma triggers.
— Monitor your breathing.
— Identify and treat attacks early.
— Take your medication as prescribed.
— Pay attention to increasing quick-relief inhaler use.


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