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Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Arthritis

 

Arthritis


Definition
· Arthritis is a joint disorder featuring inflammation. A joint is an area of the body where two different bones meet.

· There are 100 types of arthritis


Cause of Arthritis


· Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Cartilage normally protects a joint, allowing it to move smoothly. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on the joint, such as when you walk. Without the normal amount of cartilage, the bones rub together, causing pain, swelling (inflammation), and stiffness.

· An autoimmune disease (the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue)

· Broken bone

· Infection,




Risk Factors

· Age > 40 years
· Women > men
· Obesity
· Previous joint injury
· Ethnic background

Osteoarthritis

· Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joint cartilage and bone, often thought to result from "wear and tear" on a joint, although there are other causes such as congenital defects, trauma and metabolic disorders. Joints appear larger, are stiff and painful and usually feel worse the more they are used throughout the day.

· Person who has Overweighed ,pain in both knees whenever walks too far. knees are stiff in the morning. The pain gets better when rests or takes Medicine. Her knees are big, bony, and sometimes swollen, but don’t get red or warm.

· Breakdown in cartilage and new bone formation.

· Increased risk with older age, obesity, overuse or previous injury to joints.






Rheumatoid arthritis

· Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. Involves the hands and other joints and is worse in the morning.








Cause of Rheumatoid arthritis

· Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease which initially attacks the synovium, a connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity between joints and secretes a lubricating fluid.






Difference between Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis



  deterioration of cartilage and overgrowth of bone

  Destruction of the cartilage. Due to synovial membrane

Arthritis in the HIP

· Cartilage normally protects the joint, allowing for smooth movement. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on the joint, like when walking. Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Without the usual amount of cartilage, the bones of the joint rub together, causing pain, swelling and stiffness.


Gout

· Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the body. Crystals of uric acid form inside a joint and cause inflammation, which makes the joint red, hot, swollen and painful.
· runs in families
· more common in men,
· women after menopause

Other risk factors include
· obesity
· high blood pressure
· drinking too much alcohol
· kidney failure






Tendonitis

· Inflammation of a tendon.
· A tendon is a tissue cord
· That holds a muscle onto a bone.

· Treatments
· reduce/stop doing whatever caused it
· non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
· steroid injections
· physical therapy – splinting, heat, ice










Bursitis
· Bursitis = inflammation of a bursa. A bursa is a sac that lays over bony projections, to reduce friction as tissue rubs over the bone.

· A bursa can become inflamed from injury, infection (rare in the shoulder), or due to an underlying rheumatic condition.

· Common sites of bursitis
· outer shoulder area

· outer hip area

· elbow

· over and below the knee cap








Treatment

 weight reduction
 exercise
 physical and occupational therapy
 joint protection
 pain relief
 over the counter medications, esp. acetaminophen
 prescription medications
 joint injections
 joint replacement

Investigation

  X-ray
 Computerized tomography (CT).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
 Ultrasound
 Blood Test & Urine Test
 Arthroscopy : An incision near your joint. The arthroscopy transmits images from inside the joint to a video screen.

Prevention

 Weight loss. If you're obese, losing weight will reduce the stress on your weight-bearing joints. This may increase your mobility and limit future joint injury.

 Exercise. Regular exercise can help keep your joints flexible. Swimming or water aerobics is often a good choice because the buoyancy of the water reduces stress on weight-bearing joints.

  Heat and cold. Heating pads or ice packs may help relieve arthritis pain.

 Assistive devices. Using canes, walkers, raised toilet seats and other assistive devices can help protect your joints and improve your ability to perform daily tasks.
 
Diet
 apples
 berries
 cherries
 citrus fruits
 nuts
 all leafy green vegetables
 oily fish
 wholegrain
 Calcium-rich foods include dairy products (milk, cheese and yoghurt), nuts, seeds and fish, such as sardines or whitebait (particularly if you eat the bones).

 Sunlight is our main source of vitamin D but it can also be found in oily fish and fortified foods, such as cereals and margarines.

  Foods rich in omega-3 are believed to have an anti-inflammatory effect, which may reduce the pain associated with inflamed joints. Omega-3 is found in oily fish, such as sardines, mackerel and salmon.



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